Diabetes or Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic and chronic disease that occurs when a person’s blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.

Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If not treated, diabetes can cause acute conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.

There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:

Type 1 Diabetes, which occurs when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin.

Type 2 Diabetes, which begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.

Gestational diabetes, which occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.