Abdominal, or visceral, fat is the fat tissue that deposited in the midsection of the body, around the abdominal organs. Abdominal fat has been linked to metabolic disturbances, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In women, it is also associated with breast cancer and the need for gallbladder surgery. Two measurements, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, have been used by researchers to identify those with increased belly fat.
Active recovery refers to gradually engaging in low intensity exercise after vigorous workouts.
There are two forms of active recovery. One is during the cool-down phase, immediately after a hard effort or workout. The second form of active recovery includes the days following a competition or other intense workout.
Active recovery facilitates lactate and metabolic waste removal by maintaining blood flow in muscles during recovery.
Added Refined Starch
Added refined starch is the starch constituent of a grain, such as corn or of a vegetable, such as potato, used as an ingredient in another food. The refining or milling process removes dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals.
Refined starches can be added to foods as a thickener, a stabilizer, a bulking agent, or an anti-caking agent. While refined starches are made from grains or vegetables, they contain little or none of the many other components of these foods that together create a nutrient-dense food. They are a source of calories but few or no other nutrients If the nutrients are added back in, the refined grains or refined carbohydrates are called enriched grains.
Added sugars are syrups and other caloric sweeteners used to sweeten other food products.
Examples of added sugars are: Brown sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, invert sugar, lactose, malt syrup, maltose, molasses, raw sugar, sucrose, trehalose, and turbinado sugar.
Naturally occurring sugars such as those in fruit or milk are not added sugars.
Adipose tissue, or fatty tissue, is a connective tissue consisting mainly of fat cells, specialized to synthesize and contain large globules of fat within a structural network of fibres. It is found mainly under the skin, but also in deposits between the muscles, in the intestines and in their membrane folds, around the heart and elsewhere. Adipose tissue is also found in the bone marrow, where it imparts a yellow color (yellow marrow is most abundant in adults.)
The fat stored in adipose tissue comes from dietary fats or is produced in the body.
Aerobic exercise is a physical activity of low to high intensity that one can sustain for more than just a few minutes with the objective of improving one’s cardiorespiratory fitness and health.
The word “aerobic" means “in the presence of, or with, oxygen."
When doing aerobic exercise, the heart thumps and breathing gets faster.
Jogging, rowing or cycling are examples of aerobic exercises. They stimulate and strengthen the heart and lungs, thereby, improve one’s utilization of oxygen.
Aerobics is a type of energetic physical exercise and often performed with a group of people and music. Aerobics makes the heart, lungs and muscles stronger and increases the amount of oxygen in the blood.
Amino acids are considered to be the building blocks of polypeptides and proteins. Amino acids contain amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N).
Beyond their role as residues in proteins, amino acids participate in a number of processes, such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis.
There are nine proteinogenic amino acids called "essential amino acids" because they cannot be produced from other compounds by the human body and, thus, must be taken in as food. Others may be “conditionally essential” for certain ages or medical conditions.
Amino acids are commonly used in nutritional supplements, fertilizers, feed, and food technology. Industrial uses include the production of drugs, biodegradable plastics, and chiral catalysts.
Anaerobic exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form. Oxygen is not present with anaerobic exercise and glycogen is used as fuel.
Once all the glycogen has been depleted (usually in about two hours) one can expect to hit the proverbial wall.
Anaerobic exercise is mostly used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by bodybuilders to build muscle mass.
Examples include sprinting and weight lifting.
Anaerobic Threshold (AT)
Anaerobic Threshold (AT) indicates the level of exercise one performs comfortably for long periods of time and determines the primary fuel one’s body uses during exercise. Thus, the AT is the best guide for optimizing training intensity and an excellent estimation of lactate threshold.
A person primarily uses fat as his exercise fuel if he exercises below his AT. On the other hand, above AT, his body relies more on carbs for fuel, and produces lactic acid, which in turn leads to an increase in respiration to buffer this acid build up. The AT is, therefore, determined by measuring levels of respired gases.
AT is affected by many variables, including sex, genetics, and fitness, so it must be measured individually.
Android fat is the adipose tissue mainly around the trunk and upper body, in areas such as the abdomen, chest, shoulder, and nape of the neck.
Having too much android fat may lead to an "apple-shaped" body or central obesity.
Barbell is a long bar with adjustable weighted disks attached to each end.
Barbell is used in weight training, bodybuilding, weightlifting and powerlifting.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), is the total number of calories that the body needs to perform basic, life-sustaining (basal) functions, such as breathing, circulation and cell production. A combination of factors determines a person’s basal metabolic rate like genetics, age, gender and body composition.
There's not much a person can do to control genetics, age or gender but one may change his body composition to improve his BMR. BMR also decreases with age and with the loss of lean body mass.
To most accurately calculate BMR, an expert should take measurements of carbon dioxide and oxygen analysis after one has fasted for 12 hours and has had eight hours of sleep.
Barre is a horizontal bar at waist level. Barre is used as a prop to balance while doing exercises that focus on isometric strength training combined with high reps of small range-of-motion movements.
Bench press is a weightlifting or bodybuilding exercise, in which a person lies supine on a bench with feet on the floor and raises a fixed weight with both arms from chest level to arm's length, and then lowers it back to chest level.
Bench press is usually repeated in sets.
Biceps is a large muscle that lies on the front of the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow. Both heads of the muscle arise on the scapula and join to form a single muscle belly which is attached to the upper forearm.
Bicep curls is a weight training exercise stimulating the bicep muscle, in which a dumbbell or a fixed weight is held in the hand with the arm extended and lifted to complete flexion of the arm at the elbow.
Bio-Impedance is the response of a living organism to an externally applied electric current.
Bio-Impedance is about the electrical properties of one’s body (e.g. to what extent one is a good conductor) and used to measure body composition through various parameters such as weight, height, basal metabolism, fat mass, lean body mass and fat-free mass percentage.
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is produced primarily by the contraction of the heart muscle.
The blood pressure is recorded by two numbers: systolic pressure and diastolic pressure.
The systolic pressure is measured after the heart contracts and is highest.
The diastolic pressure is measured before the heart contracts and is lowest.
A blood pressure cuff is used to measure the pressure.
Body composition refers to an estimate of the proportions of major components of the body, such as water, nitrogen, and sodium, but more specifically, the proportion of lean body mass to fat. Because muscular tissue takes up less space in the body than the fat tissue, body composition, as well as weight, determines leanness. Two people of same gender and body weight may look completely different from each other because they have a different body composition.
Body composition varies among individuals as a result of differences in body density and degree of obesity.
Body fat is the portion of the human body that consists of fat and includes essential body fat and storage body fat.
Essential body fat is necessary to maintain life and reproductive functions. The percentage of essential body fat for women is greater than that for men, due to the demands of childbearing and other hormonal functions. The percentage of essential fat is 2–5% in men, and 10–13% in women (referenced through NASM).
Storage body fat consists of fat accumulation in adipose tissue, part of which protects internal organs in the chest and abdomen. The minimum recommended total body fat percentage exceeds the essential fat percentage value reported above.
A number of methods are available for determining body fat, such as underwater weighing, whole-body air displacement plethysmography, near-infrared interactance, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, body average density measurement, bioelectrical impedance analysis, along with anthropometric methods such as skin folds (i.e. calipers).
Body measurements are anthropometric measurements that collected for the purposes of understanding human physical variation. These measures can be taken manually or with the help of a body scanner.
Fitnescity collects measurements for the following body parts: waist, hips, biceps (R) and (L), thighs (R) and (L), along with calves (R) and (L).
Body water is the portion of the body that consists of water, and it is contained in the tissues, in the blood, in the bones and elsewhere.
The percentages of body water contained in various fluid compartments add up to Total Body Water (TBW). This water makes up a significant fraction of the body, both by weight and by volume.
Ensuring the right amount of body water is part of fluid balance, an aspect of homeostasis.
Body weight is a person's mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, a measure of mass, throughout the world but in some countries such as the United States or the United Kingdom it is measured in pounds.
Body volume is the composition of a person and his body parts.
Each part of a person’s body has its own 3D shape, individual weight and measurement as a part of the body’s total weight. An increase in the volume of fat and muscle causes an increase or decrease of volume in that area of the body.
Body Volume Index (BVI)
The Body Volume Index is a new measurement for obesity, proposed as an alternative and enhancement to the body mass index (BMI) since the recent studies have highlighted the limitations of BMI as an indicator of individual health risk.
The Body Volume Index uses an algorithm based on MRI data and detailed Body Composition data to make an inference as to the body's distribution of weight and the distribution of muscle and fat.
Bone Mineral Density (BMD)
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD) is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
A bone mineral density (BMD) test measures a person’s bone health, comparing his bone density, or mass, to that of a healthy person who is the same age and sex as he is.
The BMD test can also determine if a person has osteoporosis (a disease that makes your bones weak) or if his osteoporosis treatment is working, and his risk for breaking bones.
Bootcamp is a workout inspired by military training exercises. Bootcamp is designed to build strength and fitness through a variety of intense group intervals over a 1-hour period of time
Breath Rate (F (br/min)) is the number of breaths taken per minute.
Burpee is a full body exercise used in strength training and as an aerobic exercise in which a person squats, places the palms of the hands on the floor in front of the feet, jumps back into a push-up position, in some cases completes one push-up, returns to the squat position, and then jumps up into the air while extending the arms overhead.
Calcium is a chemical element of atomic number 20 that is present in teeth, bones, and chalk. It is one of the most important elements in human body, used to build and develop the skeleton and teeth.
Calcium also plays a crucial role in muscle contraction, transmitting messages through the nerves, and the release of hormones.
If a person is not getting enough calcium in his diet, his body takes calcium from the bones to ensure normal cell function. This can lead to weakened bones.
The calf is the back portion of the lower leg. The muscles within the calf correspond to the posterior compartment of the leg. The two largest muscles within this compartment are known together as the calf muscle and attach to the heel via the Achilles tendon.
Calisthenics is a type of exercise consisting of gross motor movements such as running, standing, grasping, pushing, etc., usually performed rhythmically and with little or no special apparatus.
Calisthenic exercises are intended to increase body strength, body fitness, and flexibility through movements such as pulling or pushing oneself up, bending, jumping, or swinging, using only one's body weight for resistance.
Calorie is a unit of energy that can be defined in two broad categories.
The small calorie, or gram calorie (cal), is the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius at a pressure of one atmosphere.
The large calorie or kilogram calorie (cal or kcal), also known as the food calorie, is the heat energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram (rather than a gram) of water by one degree Celsius. It is equal to 1,000 small calories.
In nutrition and fitness calorie is often used as a measurement of the amount of energy that food provides.
Calorie balance is the number of calories one takes in compared to the number of calories one burns.
Carbohydrate is any of various neutral compounds of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O), usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1, and thus, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n).
Carbohydrate is also a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides and disaccharides are the smallest carbohydrates, and they are commonly referred to as sugars. Monosaccharides are the major source of fuel for metabolism, being used both as an energy source (glucose) and in biosynthesis. Two joined monosaccharides are a disaccharide and these are the simplest polysaccharides. Examples include sucrose and lactose.
Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy. Starch is a polysaccharide and it is abundant in cereals (wheat, maize, rice), potatoes, and processed foods such as bread, pizza or pasta. Another polysaccharide is cellulose, which is one of the main components of insoluble dietary fiber. Although it is not digestible, insoluble dietary fiber helps to maintain a healthy digestive system by easing defecation.
The body breaks down most sugars and starches into glucose, a simple sugar that the body can use to provide energy to its cells.
Carbon-dioxide (CO2) is a heavy colorless, odorless gas, formed during the decomposition and combustion of organic compounds, in the reaction of acids with carbonates or when people or animals breathe out (respiration).
Cardio refers to any type of exercise that causes the heart to beat faster and harder for a period of time.
Examples of cardio exercises are spinning and running.
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the name for the group of disorders of heart and blood vessels.
Cardiovascular diseases include: hypertension (high blood pressure) coronary heart disease (heart attack) cerebrovascular disease (stroke).
Cardiovascular system, also known as the the circulatory system or the vascular system, is an organ system that allows blood to circulate and transport nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
In medicine, chronic refers to lasting a long time.
A chronic condition is the one that lasts three months or more.
Chronic pain is defined as any pain lasting more than 12 weeks.
Circuit training is a workout technique involving a series of exercises performed in rotation with minimal rest and high intensity, often using different pieces of apparatus. The total number of circuits performed during a training session may vary from two to six depending on a person’s training level (beginner, intermediate, or advanced), his period of training (preparation or competition) and his training objective.
The following are examples of exercises that can be used in a circuit training session:
Press ups, bench dips, pull ups, medicine ball chest pass, bench lift for the upper body.
Sit ups, stomach crunch, back extension chest raise for the core and trunk.
Squat jumps, compass jumps, step ups, shuttle runs, bench squat for the lower body.
Burpee, treadmills, squat thrusts for the total body.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the human body, found in the bones, muscles, skin, and tendons that holds the body together and provides strength and structure.
A concentric muscle contraction is a type of muscle activation that increases tension on a muscle as it shortens.
Connective tissue is one of the four animal tissues, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. It is found in between other tissues everywhere in the body, including the nervous system and made up of three main components: fibers, ground substance and cells.
The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes.
Connective tissue helps maintain the form of the body and its organs, and provides cohesion and internal support.
Cool down is the act or an instance of allowing physiological activity to gradually return to normal after exhaustive exercise by engaging in less exhaustive exercise.
Core is a part of the body, and it is broadly considered to be the torso.
Coronary means belonging or relating to the heart.
Cortisol is one of the steroid hormones. It is produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal glands which sit up on each kidney.
Cortisol is released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration.
CrossFit is a branded fitness regimen created by Greg Glassman and it refers to constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity.
Cross training is typically defined as an exercise regimen that uses several modes of training to help reduce burnout, improve performance and enjoy a balanced fitness program.
Crunch is one of the most popular abdominal exercises to make a person’s stomach flatter and stronger. The crunch primarily works the rectus abdominis muscle, but it also works the obliques.
A crunch begins with lying face up on the floor with knees bent. Then, the movement continues by curling the shoulders towards the pelvis. The hands can be behind or beside the neck or crossed over the chest.
Injury can be caused by pushing against the head or neck with hands.
Cup-equivalent is the amount of a food or beverage product that is equal to 1 cup from the vegetables, fruits, or dairy food groups. A cup-eq for some foods or beverages may differ from a measured cup in volume.
Daily Value (DV) serves as a basis for declaring the percent of the DV for each nutrient that a serving of the food provides. It is specified on a food’s nutrition label.
For example, based on a 2,000-calorie diet, the Daily Value for fat is 65 grams.
DASH Eating Plan
DASH is an acronym for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. The DASH eating plan is intended to help prevent and control high blood pressure as it has been shown to decrease the blood pressure.
The DASH eating plan is rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods, and low in saturated and total fat.
Deadlift is a weight training exercise in which a loaded barbell or a bar is lifted off the ground to the level of the hips, then lowered back to the ground.
Degenerative Joint Disease
Degenerative joint disease, or osteoarthritis, is an inflammation of the joints and surrounding tissues. The disease can cause to an eventual loss of the cartilage of the joints.
Degenerative joint disease is the most common chronic condition of the joints, affecting approximately 27 million Americans
Deltoid is a large triangular muscle that covers the shoulder joint and serves to raise the arm laterally.
Diabetes or Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic and chronic disease that occurs when a person’s blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.
Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If not treated, diabetes can cause acute conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:
Type 1 Diabetes, which occurs when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes, which begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.
Gestational diabetes, which occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.
Diastolic Blood Pressure
Diastolic pressure is the pressure of the blood in the arteries when the heart is filling. It is the lower of two blood pressure measurements.
Diet is the food and drink usually eaten or drunk by a person or group.
Diet can also be ‘an attempting eating plan,’ in which someone eats less food, or only particular types of foods.
Dietary supplements refer to products taken orally that contain one or more ingredients (such as vitamins or amino acids). They are intended to supplement one's diet and not considered as food.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is a set of recommendations for the proper intake of nutrients to ensure a person’s body is getting what it needs for good health.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) include four sets of values including: Estimated Average Requirements (EARs), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL).
Diuretics, also called water pills, are medications designed to increase the amount of water and salt expelled from the body as urine, causing a person to lose water.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is an extremely long macromolecule that is the main component of chromosomes. DNA is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms.
The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order of these bases determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter responsible for sending messages between the brain and different nerve cells of the body. It works by improving the pumping strength of the heart and the blood flow to the kidneys.
Dopamine is also used to treat certain conditions that occur when a person is in shock, which may be caused by heart attack, trauma, surgery, heart failure, kidney failure, and other serious medical conditions.
Downward dog is a yoga pose in which the body assumes an inverted V shape, with the hands and feet on the floor, and the buttocks pointing upward.
Dumbbell is a short bar with a weight on each end that a person lifts up and down to make his arm and shoulder muscles stronger.
Eating behaviors are individual behaviors that affect food and beverage choices and intake patterns, such as what, where, when, why, and how much people eat.
Eating patterns are foods and beverages that constitute an individual’s complete dietary intake over time. This may be a description of a customary way of eating, or a combination of foods recommended for consumption.
An eccentric contraction is the motion of an active muscle while it is lengthening under load.
An ectomorph is a typical skinny guy with a delicate build, small joints and lean muscle. Usually ectomorph’s have long thin limbs with stringy muscles. Shoulders tend to be thin with little width.
Ectomorphs tend to find it difficult to gain weight because they have a fast metabolism which burns up calories very quickly. They need a huge amount of calories in order to gain weight. Workouts should be short and intense focusing on big muscle groups. Supplements are also definitely recommended.
Endomorph is a person with a soft round build of body and a high proportion of fat tissue.
Endomorphs tend to have a higher body fat percentage. They gain weight easier than others and have greater difficulty losing weight.
Electrolyte is a substance that dissociates into ions in solution and acquires the capacity to conduct electricity.
Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and phosphate are examples of electrolytes.
Endorphins are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and animals that produced by the central nervous system and the pituitary gland.
Endorphins are naturally released in the brain to reduce pain, and, in large amounts, they can make a person feel happy and calm or full of energy.
Endurance training generally refers to training the aerobic system as opposed to anaerobic and it is intended to increase endurance.
Endurance is a person’s ability to exert himself over a period of time. A high level of endurance also refers to a person’s to ability withstand stress, pain, and fatigue.
Endurance is also directly related to a person’s cardiovascular and muscular health.
Examples of endurance training are distance running events (800 meters upwards to marathon and ultra-marathon) cycling and competitive swimming.
Energy drink is a beverage containing stimulant drugs, usually including caffein, that intended to provide mental and physical stimulation (marketed as "energy", but different from food energy (kcal)).
The drinks can sometimes be carbonated and many also contain sugar or other sweeteners, herbal extracts, and amino acids.
They are a subset of the larger group of energy products, which includes bars and gels.
Also, energy drinks are not sports drinks, which are advertised to enhance sports performance.
Enrichment is a process in which the food, that has lost nutrients during milling, grinding, pasteurization, or other processes, gets those nutrients added back.
Two examples of vitamins commonly used in food enrichment are vitamins B1 and B2.
EPOC (Excess Post Energy Consumption)
EPOC is the amount of oxygen required to restore a person’s body to its normal, resting level of metabolic function (homeostasis).
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption helps one’s body burn fat long after he has left the gym.
Epinephrine is a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla upon stimulation by the central nervous system in response to stress, anger or fear.
The hormone acts to increase heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and carbohydrate metabolism.
Essential Body Fat
Essential body fat is the body fat that is considered necessary for good health and efficient body functioning. It’s stored in small amounts in organs, muscles, bone marrow, and central nervous system.
Essential nutrients are compounds that must be obtained from the diet because the body cannot produce them in sufficient quantity. These nutrients are vital for disease prevention, growth, and good health. While there are many essential nutrients, they can be broken into two categories: macronutrients and micronutrients.
Macronutrients are eaten in large amounts and provide the body with energy. Essential macronutrients are protein, carbohydrates, and fat.
Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients, and small doses go a long way.
Eustress is a positive form of stress that has a beneficial effect on health, motivation, performance, and emotional well-being.
Marriage, starting to a new job, taking a vacation, moving etc. are all examples of eustress.
Exercise is a physical activity that a person does to make his body strong and healthy.
Exercise Metabolic Rate (EMR)
Exercise Metabolic Rate, EMR, is the extra number of calories (kcal/day) that the body utilizes for all other activities (standing, eating, working, exercising, etc.) beyond the ones that are used while lying still.
Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers
Fast twitch muscle fibers are the muscle fibers that contract quickly, but rapidly get tired.
Fast twitch muscles are good for rapid movements like jumping to catch a ball or sprinting for the bus.
Fasting refers to the act of abstaining from all food and beverages.
Fat is an oily or greasy matter making up the bulk of adipose tissue and a type of macronutrient that the body gets from diet.
Fat has nine calories per gram, while carbohydrates and protein each have four calories per gram.
All fats are made up of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and they are called saturated or unsaturated depending on how much of each type of fatty acid they contain.
It is essential to eat some fatty foods as they give the body energy that it needs to work properly. During exercise, the body primarily uses calories from carbohydrates, but after some time, exercise then depends on calories from fat to keep the body going.
Fat is also essential for keeping the skin and hair healthy and it helps the body absorb vitamins A, D, E, and K, the so-called fat-soluble vitamins. Fat also fills fat cells and insulates the body to help keep it warm.
The fats that the body gets from good fat food sources are essential fatty acids called linoleic and linolenic acid. They are called "essential" because the body cannot make them itself, or work without them. They are required for brain development, controlling inflammation, and blood clotting.
Fat burn refers to the act of causing one's body to use the fat that’s stored.
Fatigue is weariness or exhaustion from labor, exertion, or stress.
Fat-free mass refers to body's vital tissues and cells such as organs, muscles, bones, connective tissues and water.
A fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms.
Fatty acids are usually not found in organisms, but instead as three main classes of esters: triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters. They are essential dietary sources of fuel and they are important structural components for cells.
Femur is the proximal bone of the hind or lower limb that extends from the hip to the knee. It is also called the thigh bone.
Fiber, also known as bulk, is the part of fruits and vegetables that cannot be digested.
Fiber is of vital importance to digestion as it helps the body move food through the digestive tract, reduces serum cholesterol, and contributes to disease protection
Flexibility refers to being capable of bending or being bent.
Foam rolling is a simple self-manual therapy technique often used to improve flexibility, recovery, and athletic performance.
Food access is the ability to obtain and maintain levels of sufficient amounts of healthy, safe, and affordable food for all family members in various settings including where they live, learn, work and play.
Food access is often measured by distance to a store or the number of stores in an area.
Food allergy is an immune system reaction that occurs soon after eating a certain food. Even a tiny amount of the allergy-causing food can trigger signs and symptoms such as digestive problems, hives or swollen airways.
Food grouping is a method of grouping similar foods for descriptive and guidance purposes.
Food groups in the USDA Food Patterns are defined as vegetables, fruits, grains, dairy, and protein foods. Some of these groups are divided into subgroups, such as dark-green vegetables or whole grains, which may have intake goals or limits. Foods are grouped within food groups based on their similarity in nutritional composition and other dietary benefits.
A food log is a detailed daily record of the food and drink one consumes over a certain period of time, typically kept as a means of tracking calorie and sugar consumption or identifying habitual eating patterns.
Fortification is the process in which the food has extra nutrients added to it, or has nutrients added that are not normally there.
Examples are milk with vitamin D added and salt with iodine added.
Free weights refer to heavy objects that are lifted during exercising (such as dumbbells and barbells). They are not attached to a piece of equipment.
Free radicals are unstable atoms that can damage cells, causing illness and aging. Free radicals are linked to aging and a host of diseases, but little is known about their role in human health, or how to prevent them from making people sick.
Functional Movement Screen
Functional movements are movements based on real-world situational biomechanics. They usually involve multi-planar, multi-joint movements, which place demand on the body's core musculature and innervation.
Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is the screening tool used to identify limitations or asymmetries in seven fundamental movement patterns that are key to functional movement quality in individuals with no current pain complaint or known musculoskeletal injury.
These movement patterns are designed to provide with observable performance of basic loco motor, and manipulative and stabilizing movements by placing an individual in extreme positions where weaknesses and imbalances become noticeable if appropriate mobility and motor control is not utilized.
Functional training is defined as movements or exercises that train a person’s muscles to work together and improves their ability to complete their daily activities or to achieve a specific goal. It is not a series of exercises deemed functional by some manual.
While using various muscles in the upper and lower body at the same time, functional training also improves core stability.
Gastrointestinal tract, also called the alimentary canal or digestive tract, is the part of the digestive system that consists of the stomach and the intestines. It is a large, muscular tube that extends from the mouth to the anus, where the movement of muscles and the release of hormones and enzymes allow for the digestion of food.
Gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity.
Genetic means relating to genes or heredity, relating to origin, or arising from a common origin.
Glucagon is a hormone that raises the level of glucose in the blood. The pancreas produces glucagon and releases it when the body needs more sugar in the blood for delivery to the cells.
Glucagon acts in opposition to insulin in the regulation of blood glucose levels.
Gluten is a mixture of proteins within the same family but it is primarily made up of two different classes of proteins: gliadin, and glutenin.
Gluten is the major protein of wheat, rye, barley and found in the endosperm. Gluten creates the elasticity and stickiness that provides the characteristic texture and tenderness of gluten based breads and baked products.
Glutes are the muscles of the buttocks.
Glycemic Index (IG)
Glycemic Index is an indicator of the ability of different types of foods that contain carbohydrate to raise the blood glucose levels within 2 hours.
Two foods with the same amount of carbohydrates can have different glycemic index numbers. The smaller the number, the less impact the food has on a person’s blood sugar.
Foods containing carbohydrates that break down most quickly during digestion have the highest glycemic index, such as white bread, bagels, breakfast cereals, instant oats, corn flakes, short grain white rice, rice pasta.
Foods containing carbohydrates that break down slowly during digestion have the lowest glycemic index such as whole wheat, barley, bulgar, sweet potato, corn, yam, peas, legumes and lentils, oatmeal, fruits.
Glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose that is mainly produced and stored in liver and muscle cells. Glycogen functions as the secondary long-term energy storage in animal and human cells, thus, it is used when the body doesn't need glucose for energy.
Grade (%) refers to the degree of incline of the treadmill at a given point during the VO2 Max test.
Gynoid fat is the body fat that is formed around the hips, breasts and thighs. Gynoid fat is generally stored subcutaneously, on the surface of the body (just under the skin and above the muscle).
Hamstring is one of the three posterior thigh muscles in between the hip and the knee. Hamstring muscles are quite susceptible to injury.
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Healthy Eating Index (HEI)
The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance with federal dietary guidance. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans is designed for nutrition and health professionals to help individuals (ages 2 years and older) and families to consume a healthful and nutritionally adequate diet.
Heart rate is a measure of cardiac activity usually expressed as number of beats per minute. A normal resting heart rate for adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute.
The heart rate can vary according to the body's physical needs, including the need to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide. It is usually equal or close to the pulse measured at any peripheral point. Activities that can provoke change include physical exercise, sleep, anxiety, stress, illness, and ingestion of drugs.
Tachycardia is a fast heart rate, defined as above 100 bpm at rest. Bradycardia is a slow heart rate, defined as below 60 bpm at rest. Several studies, as well as expert consensus, indicates that the normal resting adult heart rate is probably closer to a range between 50–90 bpm.
During sleep a slow heartbeat with rates around 40–50 bpm is common and is considered normal.
When the heart is not beating in a regular pattern, this is referred to as an arrhythmia. Abnormalities of heart rate sometimes indicate disease.
High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)
High intensity interval training or HIIT, also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is defined as short, intense, unsustainable bursts of physical activity, paired with intervals of quick rests. HIIT workouts are related with improved athletic capacity and glucose metabolism, and reduced fat mass of the whole body.
HIIT workout includes squats, jumping jacks, push-ups, butt kicks, sit ups, mountain climbers and other challenging types of exercise
High Intensity Sweeteners
High intensity sweeteners are sugar alternates used to enhance and sweeten the flavourings of a large range of foods and beverages.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar is a condition in which high amounts of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. It is a major health concern, and can affect people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. There are two types of hyperglycemia:
Fasting hyperglycemia when blood sugar is higher than 130 mg/dL after not eating or drinking for at least 8 hours.
Postprandial or after-meal hyperglycemia when the blood sugar is higher than 180 mg/dL 2 hours after eating. People without diabetes usually have blood sugar levels less than 140 mg/dL after a meal.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a common disease in which blood flows through blood vessels, or arteries, at higher than normal pressures. It can lead to severe complications and increase the risks of heart disease, stroke, and death.
For most adults, normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–130 millimeters mercury (mmHg) systolic and 60–80 mmHg diastolic. For most adults, if the resting blood pressure is persistently at or above 130/80 or 140/90 mmHg, high blood pressure is present.
Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, refers to an abnormally low levels of sugar, or glucose, in the blood.
Hypoglycemia occurs when blood glucose levels fall below 70 mg/dL.
Hypoglycemia is not a disease but a symptom of another condition like diabetes, alcohol abuse or kidney disorders. Early symptoms include hunger, sweating, and trembling.
Hypotension is low blood pressure in the arteries. Hypotension is present when a systolic blood pressure is less than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or diastolic is less than 60 mm Hg.
Low blood pressure can be caused by low blood volume, hormonal changes, widening of blood vessels, medicine side effects, anemia, heart problems or endocrine problems.
The primary symptoms of hypotension are lightheadedness or dizziness.
Having an incline means deviating from the vertical or horizontal; slant.
Inflammation is a complex biological response of body to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Inflammation is intended to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and initiate tissue repair.
Inflammation can be external or internal. The five classical signs of inflammation include: pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Some of these indicators can also be seen due to an allergic reaction.
Moreover, inflammation is a generic response, and therefore, it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity, which is specific for each pathogen.
Insulin is the main anabolic hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets. Insulin regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of carbohydrates, especially glucose, from the blood into liver, fat and skeletal muscle cells.
When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.
Intensity is the quality or state of being intense, in extreme degree of strength, force, energy, or feeling.
Interval training is simply alternating short bursts (approximately 30 seconds) of intense activity with longer intervals (three to four minutes) of less intense activity.
Isokinetic exercises are resistance-based exercises that involve the use of special exercise equipment which provides variable resistance to a movement and allows muscles to contract at constant speeds.
Isometric means without movement. During isometric training, a person’s muscles do not contract, release or change length, and his limbs and joints remain in the same position. Thus, isometric exercises involve the contraction of muscle tissue at a specific angle.
These exercises are used to rehabilitate an injured joint rather than to improve overall strength, speed or endurance. If a person has high blood pressure, isometric exercises are not recommended as the increased muscle tension also tends to increase blood pressure.
Holding a downward plank or the starting position of a push-up exercise for 10 to 20 seconds are both examples of isometric exercises.
Isotonic means maintaining equal (muscle) tone. Isotonic exercises aim to increase muscular strength, power, and endurance based on lifting a constant amount of weight at variable speeds through a range of motions.
Examples of isotonic exercise include squats, stair climbing, bicep curls and push-ups.
Joint refers to a point where two bones of the skeleton come together, usually in a way that allows motion.
Jumping jack is form of exercise in which a person jumps from a standing position, with the feet together and the arms at the sides, to a position in which the feet are apart and the hands touch overhead, and then jumps back again.
Kegel exercises are repetitive contractions of the pelvic muscles that control the flow in urination. Kegel exercises aim to strengthen a person’s pelvic floor muscles that support his uterus, bladder, small intestine, and rectum.
Ketone is a chemical substances that the body makes when it does not have enough insulin in the blood.
The Ketogenic diet, also known as the Keto Diet, is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet where the body produces ketones in the liver to be used as energy.
The diet itself can be regarded as a high-fat diet because around 75 percent of calories derived from fats. In contrast, around 20 percent and 5 percent of calories are gained from proteins and carbohydrates, respectively.
Kettlebell is a round weight with a flat bottom and thick handle on top that is used for exercise and weight training.
The kettlebell swing is a form of exercise that utilizes the muscles in legs and hips. While a person swings the kettlebell, his shoulders, abs, and back muscles balance out his upper power to control his balance, momentum and posture.
The list of major muscle groups that the kettlebell swing works out is: delts, traps, pecs, glutes, hamstrings and quads.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CO2H. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red blood cells. It forms when the body breaks down carbohydrates to use for energy when oxygen levels are low. Times when your body's oxygen level might drop include:
1)During intense exercise
2)When you have an infection or disease
A test can be done to measure the amount of lactic acid in the blood.
Lean Body Mass
Lean body mass is a component of body composition, calculated by subtracting body fat weight from total body weight .
Low Impact Exercise
Low impact exercise includes exercises with softer gear, placing less stress on the body and potentially reducing the risk of injury.
Low impact exercises include swimming, yoga, and using the elliptical, movements that involve less direct force on the body.
Lumbar is the part of the spine comprised of five vertebral bodies, L1-L5, that extend from the lower thoracic spine (chest) to the sacrum (bottom of the spine).
Macronutrients are energy-providing chemical substances consumed by organisms. The three macronutrients in nutrition are carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2 Max)
Maximal Oxygen Consumption is the maximum oxygen a person’s muscles can use when he is exercising.
The ability to use oxygen improves with aerobic training, so VO2max is an excellent measure of one’s cardio-respiratory fitness level.
A high VO2max indicates increased aerobic capacity. Endurance athletes such as elite marathoners have the higher VO2max, but everyone can improve this measure with a good endurance training program.
Maximum Heart Rate
Maximum heart rate is the maximum number of beats made by a person’s heart in 1 minute of effort.
The basic way to calculate the maximum heart rate is to subtract the person’s age from 220. For example, if a person is 30 years old, subtract 30 from 220 to get a maximum heart rate of 190. This is the maximum number of times his heart should beat per minute during exercise.
Meat and Poultry
Meat and poultry refer to the foods that come from the flesh of land animals and birds. Meat includes all forms of beef, pork, lamb, veal, goat, and non-bird game (e.g., venison, bison, elk), while poultry can be defined as domestic fowls, including chicken, turkey, duck, geese, guineas, and game birds (e.g., quail, pheasant).
Mesomorph is a person whose build is compact and muscular.
Metabolism is the whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. Metabolism consists of anabolism (the buildup of substances) and catabolism (the breakdown of substances).
The term metabolism is commonly used to refer specifically to the breakdown of food and its transformation into energy.
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders, such as increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels — that occur together, increasing a person’s risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes.
One MET is defined as the energy cost of sitting at rest quietly. For the average adult, this is about one calorie per every 2.2 pounds of body weight per hour; someone who weighs 160 pounds would burn approximately 70 calories an hour while sitting or sleeping.
Micronutrient is a chemical element or substance that is essential for growth and optimal health of a living organism. Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients.
Minute Volume (VE BTPS (L/M)) refers to the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one minute.
Mixed Expired Carbon Dioxide
Mixed Expired Carbon Dioxide (FECO2) percentage of carbon dioxide in the air exhaled.
Mixed Expired Oxygen
Mixed Expired Oxygen (FEO2) is the percentage of oxygen in the air exhaled.
Moderate Alcohol Consumption
According to the Dietary Guidelines For Americans, moderate alcohol consumption is defined as having up to 1 drink per day for women and up to 2 drinks per day for men. Moderate alcohol consumption refers to the amount consumed on any single day and is not intended as an average over several days.
Mountain climbers are calisthenic exercises that challenge a person’s balance, agility, proprioception and coordination. The exercise builds strength in the upper body muscles of the shoulders, arms, chest and back because they hold one’s body weight up for a long period of time.
A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger of neurologic information that is released from a nerve cell that carries, boosts, and balances signals between neurons, nerve cells, and other cells in the body.
Nutrient is a substance that provides nourishment essential for the maintenance of life and energy, and promotes growth.
Nutrient density identifies the proportion of nutrients in foods. Nutrient dense foods are high in nutrients but relatively low in calories.
Foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, and healthy fats, thus, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, seafood, eggs, beans and peas, unsalted nuts and seeds are all considered as nutrient dense foods.
Nutrient of Concern
Nutrient of concern refers to under-consumed nutrients. Usually the under-consumed nutrients are: vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, folate, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and fiber. Iron is an additional under-consumed nutrient for adolescent and pre-menopausal women.
Nutrition is the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.
Obesity is a medical condition in which abnormal or excessive body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may present a risk to health.
Obesity is generally measured by the body mass index (BMI), a person's weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in meters). People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI) is over 30 kg/m2.
Oil is a hydrocarbon liquid substance that is greasy to the touch and is formed by natural resources or the breakdown of fats. Oil comes in many forms as diverse as crude oil and vegetable oil, which serve very different purposes.
Ounce-equivalent is the amount of a food or beverage product that is equal to 1 ounce from the bread, dry cereal, meats and beans food groups. 1 oz eq. is the amount of a food considered equivalent to a 1-ounce slice of bread or 1 ounce of dry cereal; in the meat and beans group, 1 oz eq. is the amount of food considered equivalent to 1 ounce of cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish.
Overweight is a medical condition in which abnormal or excessive body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may present a risk to health.
Overweight is measured by the body mass index (BMI), a person's weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in meters). People are generally considered overweight when they have a mass index (BMI) of 25 to 29.9.
Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the production of free radicals and the ability of the body to counteract or detoxify their harmful effects through neutralization by antioxidants.
Oxygen Consumption (VO2 STPD (L/min))
Oxygen Consumption (VO2 STPD (L/min)) is the amount of oxygen consumed in one minute. The higher a person’s maximum VO2, the better his physical condition.
Pectoral muscles are any of the muscles which connect the ventral walls of the chest with the bones of the upper arm and shoulder and of which there are two on each side of the human body.
Pedal Speed (rev/min)
Pedal speed (rev/min) is the amount of times the wheel will make one full revolution in one minute during a VO2 Max test.
Personalized Wellness is a quantitative approach that aims to improve the health of individuals, create personalized treatments, reverse disease transitions and reduce medical costs with data collection, insights and recommendations.
Personalized Wellness creates significant opportunities for improving outcomes by leveraging data from the individual’s unique physiology, history and lifestyle,focusing primarily on behaviors such as diet and lifestyle.
Pilates is physical fitness system involving low-impact exercises and stretches designed to strengthen muscles of the torso and often performed with specialized equipment.
Physical activity refers to any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure. For example, walking to class, taking the stairs, mowing the lawn, and even cleaning the house can be considered physical activity.
While exercise is a type of physical activity, not every physical activity is exercise
Pilates is physical fitness system involving low-impact exercises and stretches designed to strengthen muscles of the torso and often performed with specialized equipment.
Plank is an isometric core strength exercise that involves maintaining a position similar to a push-up without moving for the maximum possible time.
Plateau refers to a sudden and dramatic decrease in the noticeable results of a person’s regular workouts. If a person’s workout is not continually evolving to keep up with the increases in strength and endurance, plateaus will occur.
A portion size is the amount of food that one chooses to eat for a meal or snack. It can be big or small.
Posture is the position in which someone holds their body when standing, sitting or lying down. Postural analysis look at a person’s static posture to see if there are any imbalances that could cause or are causing pain and discomfort.
Postural analysis also include manual tests that check how well a person’s muscles and joints are working together and if there are any imbalances to be corrected.
The power clean is a full-body movement in which the bar is lifted fast and explosively from the floor to a racked position on the front of the shoulders. It is probably the most accessible of the Olympic lifts. The power clean develops explosive power, while improves running, jumping, lifting, and coordination.
The power clean is an excellent exercise to develop muscle strength, especially for those people with office or sedentary jobs since they often have weak glutes and hamstrings.
Furthermore, the power clean improves muscle fibre recruitment and specifically targets the type 2B fast twitch fibres, which are the biggest and strongest muscle fibres but also the most difficult to enervate.
Prehypertension is a warning sign that a person could get high blood pressure in the future. Prehypertension is defined as a systolic pressure from 120–139 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or a diastolic pressure from 80–89 mm Hg.
Proteins are large biomolecules that has one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform comprehensive functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another.
Proteins differ from each other primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.
Proteins are needed in the diet to provide the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized. Digestion breaks the proteins down for use in the metabolism.
Push up is a conditioning exercise in which a person keeps a prone position by raising and lowering the body with the straightening and bending of the arms while keeping the back straight and supporting the body on the hands and toes.
Pull up is an upper body and arm exercise performed by pulling oneself up on a horizontal bar until one’s chin is level with the bar.
Pulse is the rhythmic dilation of an artery that results from beating of the heart. Pulse is often measured by feeling the arteries of the wrist or neck.
Quadriceps femoris is a large muscle group in front of the thigh, divided into four parts which include the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis.
Refined grains are grain products consisting of grains or grain flours that have been significantly modified from their natural composition. The modification process involves the mechanical removal of bran and germ, either through grinding or selective sifting.
Repetition is the act or an instance of repeating or being repeated. In fitness, repetitions are simply a means to count the number of exercise movements performed in a given amount of time.
Resistance refers to an opposing or slowing force.
Respiration is the movement of respiratory gases (as oxygen and carbon dioxide) into and out of the lungs; inhalation and exhalation of air; breathing.
Respiratory Exchange Rate (RER)
The Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) is the ratio between the amount of carbon dioxide produced in metabolism and oxygen used. This ratio indicates what a person’s body is using as a source of energy: carbs or fat. RER indirectly shows the muscles’ oxidative capacity to get energy.
Rest refers to the act of ceasing work or movement in order to relax, refresh oneself, or recover strength.
Resting Energy Expenditure (REE)
The Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) represents the amount of energy expended by a person at rest. Resting energy expenditure can be estimated by using the Harris-Benedict equation.
For males: Resting energy expenditure (REE) = 66.5 + 13.75 × (weight in kilograms) + 5 × (height in centimeters) − 6.76 × (age in years)
For females: REE = 655 + 9.56 × (weight in kilograms) + 1.86 × (height in centimeters) − 4.68 × (age in years)
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)
Resting Metabolic Rate or RMR is the minimum number of calories a person needs to perform basic functions, such as maintaining heart rate and body heat, breathing and keeping up brain activity. A person will need this minimum amount of energy each day, even if he is not moving around.
RMR test measures how many calories a person burns at rest, doing nothing more than sitting all day. If a person has an RMR of 1500 calories/day, he needs a minimum of 1500 calories per day for his body to function normally without any activity.
Resting Heart Rate
Resting heart rate is the number of times a person’s heart beats per minute (bpm) while at complete rest. It is also an indicator of physical fitness.
Resting Oxygen Consumption
Resting Oxygen Consumption determines the rate at which oxygen is used by tissues per minute while at rest. For normal aerobic metabolism, it is about 250 mL/min.
Rowing is a type of exercise in which the purpose is to strengthen the muscles that draw the rower's arms toward the body, those that retract the scapulae and those that support the spine.
Saturated fats are simply fat molecules that have no double bonds between carbon molecules because they are saturated with hydrogen molecules. Saturated fats are typically solid at room temperature.
Seafoods are fish and shellfish that live in the ocean and are used for food.
Sedentary behavior is any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure ≤1.5 metabolic equivalents (METs), while sitting, reclining or lying.
Serving size is the amount of a food or drink that is generally served. It is denoted for each nutrition facts label and corresponds to the amount of nutrition found in such an amount of food as delineated by the numbers on the label.
In fitness, sets refer to how many times a person repeats an exercise for the set number of repetitions.
Sit up is a type of conditioning exercise performed from a supine position by raising the torso to a sitting position and returning to the original position without using the arms or lifting the feet.
Sleep is a resting state in which the eyes are closed, afforded by a suspension of voluntary bodily functions and the natural suspension, complete or partial, of consciousness.
Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers
Slow twitch muscle fibers are more efficient at using oxygen to generate more adenosine triphosphate (ATP) fuel for continuous, extended muscle contractions over a long time. They fire more slowly than fast twitch fibers so they can go for a long time. Slow twitch fibers are great at helping athletes run marathons and bicycle for hours.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a silver-white soft waxy ductile element of the alkali metal group that occurs abundantly in nature in combined form.
It is the major positive ion (cation) in the fluid surrounding cells in the body.
Solid fats are the fats that are solid at room temperature, like beef fat, butter, and shortening. Solid fats mainly come from animal food sources but can also be made from vegetable oils through a process called hydrogenation.
Speed (mph) refers to the speed of the treadmill at a given point during the VO2 Max test.
Spinning is a form of exercise that is done inside a building on a machine like a bicycle that a person rides very fast without moving forward.
Spirometry is a test of the air capacity of the lung. The test utilizes a machine called a spirometer to measure the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs.
Squat is a compound, full body exercise in which a person positions himself close to the ground, balancing on the front part of his feet with his legs bent under his body. The exercise primarily trains the muscles of the thighs, hips and buttocks, quadriceps femoris muscle, hamstrings and strengthens the bones, ligaments and insertion of the tendons throughout the lower body. Squat can also develop core strength.
Squats are typically used to hone back, thigh, and hip stability.
Stage (#) indicates at what stage of the protocol one is exercising.
Steroid is one of a large group of chemical substances classified by a specific carbon structure. Steroids include drugs used to relieve swelling and inflammation, such as prednisone and cortisone; vitamin D; and some sex hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol.
Storage Body Fat
Storage fat is the fat that is found in adipose tissue, mostly beneath the skin and around major organs. It has has three basic functions:
It is an insulator to retain body heat.
It is an energy substrate for metabolism.
It is a padding against physical trauma to the body.
Strength training, also known as weight training, is an exercise type specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.
Strength training increases lean muscle tissue, improves structural strength, decreases excess body fat, increases endurance, and provides with several additional physical and psychological benefits.
Stretching refers to making the body (arms and legs) straight so that they are as long as possible in order to exercise the joints and lengthen the muscles after being in the same place or position for a long time or exercising vigorously.
Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances that can cause to physical and psychological health problems.
Subcutaneous fat is the visible fat that sits under the skin. It’s normally harmless and may even protect against some diseases.
Sugar-sweetened beverages include all the drinks with added sugar such as non-diet soft drinks/sodas, flavored juice drinks, sports drinks, sweetened tea, coffee drinks, energy drinks, and electrolyte replacement drinks.
Surface-Based Body Shape Index (SBSI)
Surface-Based Body Shape Index (SBSI) is proposed by West Virginia University computer scientists Syed Ashiqur Rahman and Donald Adjeroh as an alternative to BMI. The measurement is a metric for assessing the health implications of a given human body height, mass and waist circumference.
Systolic Blood Pressure
Systolic blood pressure is the amount of pressure in the arteries during the contraction of the heart muscle. It is the higher of two blood pressure measurements.
Tabata is a high-intensity interval training that consists of eight sets of fast-paced exercises each performed for 20 seconds interspersed with a brief rest of 10 seconds.
Tidal Volume (VT (L/Br) is the volume of air moved during either inspiration or expiration per breath.
Tissue is a part of the body of a living organism that is made of similar cells.
There are four basic types of tissues: muscle, nerve, epithelial, and connective.
Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)
Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) is the metabolic unit for the sum of the energy used by an organism. Total energy expenditure (TEE) is composed of the energy costs of the processes essential for life, of the energy expended in order to digest, absorb, and convert food, and the energy expended during physical activities.
Toxic refers to a poisonous material, capable of causing death or serious debilitation
Trapezius is a large flat triangular superficial muscle of each side of the upper back.
Triceps is the muscle that runs along the back of the upper arm. It is the muscle principally responsible for extension of the elbow joint (straightening of the arm).
TRX is a form of suspension training that uses body weight exercises to develop strength, balance, flexibility and core stability simultaneously.
TRX training includes a simple apparatus that can be used anywhere, indoors or out by attaching the system to a secure anchor point, e.g., a door, a hook on the wall.
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin. Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.
Underweight means below a weight considered normal or desirable. Underweight has a two indicators: a body mass index (BMI) of under 18.5 and a weight 15% to 20% below the normal age and height group.
Unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is one or more double bond in the fatty acid chain. Unsaturated fat is found in nuts, seeds, oily fish, and vegetable oils such as sunflower, soya and olive oil, as well as vegetable oil-based soft spreads.
Omega-3 and -6 are also unsaturated fats.
USDA Food Patterns
USDA Food Patterns is a system that suggests amounts of food to consume from the basic food groups, subgroups, and oils to meet recommended nutrient intakes at 12 different calorie levels.
In nutrition, variety refers to a diet including foods from each of the five food groups, in the amounts recommended.
Eating many different foods helps maintain a healthy and balanced diet which provides with a range of different nutrients to the body.
Vascular means relating to the vessels of the body, especially the arteries and veins that carry blood and lymph.
Ventilatory Equivalent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2VE (L/L))
Ventilatory Equivalent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2VE (L/L)) refers to the number of liters of air inspired per liter of carbon dioxide consumed.
Ventilatory Equivalent for Oxygen (O2VE (L/L))
Ventilatory Equivalent for Oxygen (O2VE (L/L)) refers to the number of liters of air inspired per liter of oxygen consumed. Ventilatory Equivalent for Oxygen indicates a person’s ability to extract oxygen from the air.
Visceral fat is the body fat that is stored within the abdominal cavity, around internal organs such as the liver, pancreas and intestine, so it is not easily seen.
Visceral fat is also referred to as “active fat” because it can actively increase the risk of serious health problems.
VO2/kg (ml/min/kg) is the weight adjusted value for the VO2 Max measurement and is actually more important than the VO2 Max measurement.
A person can increase this value by improving his aerobic condition or by losing a percentage of his fat.
A wall sit is an exercise that involves leaning the back against the surface of a wall and then bending the knees until the thighs are parallel to the floor. It is a static exercise that provides a constant and targeted strain on the thigh muscles and increases the muscle's strength and endurance.
Wall sit exercise is good for sculpting the thighs, hips, calves, and lower abs.
Waist Circumference (WC)
Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity and excess fat. A waist circumference of 102 centimeters (40 inches) or more in men, or 88 centimeters (35 inches) or more in women, is associated with health problems such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure.
Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR)
Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) is defined as the waist circumference divided by the hip circumference. It is also a health risk indicator since the ratio provides an additional measure of body fat distribution and heath risks. For men, a waist-to-hip ratio of 0.9 or less, and for women 0.8 or less are considered safe. For both men and women, the risk of heart disease and other problems associated with being overweight rises sharply with a WHR of 1.0 or higher.
Warm up is a preparation for physical exertion or a performance by exercising or practising gently beforehand. Warm up prepares the muscles for vigorous actions, thus, athletes, singers, actors and others warm up before stressing their muscles.
Watt is the power output at a given point during a VO2 Max test.
Weight plates are flat, heavy objects, made of cast iron. They are utilized in combination with barbells or dumbbells to produce a bar with a desired total weight for the purpose of physical exercise such as weight lifting.
Whole foods refer to foods that have been processed or refined as little as possible and are free from additives or other artificial substances.
Whole grains are the grains that have all three original parts: the bran, germ, and endosperm in the same proportions as when the grain was growing in the fields.
Consumption of whole grains is associated with lower risk of several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
Yoga literally means “union” and it is a school of Hindu philosophy advocating and prescribing a course of physical and mental disciplines for attaining liberation from the material world and union of the self with the ultimate power.
Yoga includes a series of postures and breathing exercises practiced to achieve control of the body and mind, tranquillity, peace etc.
Zumba is an aerobic fitness exercise/program that combines Latin and international music with dance moves. It is created by Colombian dancer and choreographer Alberto, or "Beto," Perez.
Zumba incorporates interval training, alternating fast and slow rhythms, and resistance training.